How to build a .Net binding in C# for a web API

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This article is the .Net part of a series whose main article is How to build a language binding for a web API which you should read before this one to get general background information about implementing a language binding.

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How to build a Java binding for a web API

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This article is the Java part of a series whose main article is How to build a language binding for a web API which you should read before this one to get general background information about implementing a language binding.

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How to build a language binding for a web API

Cometdocs logo


Recently I’ve worked with a web API, the Cometdocs API, in order to use their converter of documents, particularly for automating some conversions from PDF documents to Excel spreadsheets for data extraction.

I wanted to use this API from my two favorite development platforms: Java and .Net/C#, so I needed to build what is called a language binding, i.e. a small library that acts as a proxy between the application code and the web API.

The development of these two bindings was really interesting from a technical point of view, and I’ve learned a bunch of things during the process.

I’d like to share the interesting stuff with you, it should be of interest even if you don’t have any plan for interacting with a web API because all the technologies and techniques I’ve used (the HTTP protocol, JSON data binding, SSL/TLS…) are applicable to other types of developments.

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If your plumbing doesn’t work you’re just not using enough pipes


The following article is my response to John” comment on my other post about native C++/C# interop using C++/CLI.
The initial request was rather simple: for whatever reason John wanted to use the C++/CLI wrapper from Python and not from native C++.

It seemed technically feasible because Python has a remarkable tool to interact with native code: the ctypes module.
The only issue is that ctypes only supports C interfaces not C++ classes so in this case it can’t directly use the YahooAPIWrapper class.

In fact it’s a minor issue because this kind of situation is well known and a well documented pattern exists to circumvent it: building a C wrapper around the C++ API.

This looks a little crazy because you now have 2 layers between the Python client code and the C# Yahoo API:

Python -> C wrapper -> C++/CLI wrapper -> C# API

Puking rainbow

So, while I don’t think this layering could have any usefulness in real-life, this was a challenging and interesting question.

Looks simple no? Well, as you know when you start to pile up heterogeneous layers unexpected issues can appear and this is exactly what happened there, and it has revealed one that is worth talking about.
So keep reading!

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Java/JSON mapping with Gson


Today if you ever need to consume a web API, or produce one, chances are you’ll need to use JSON.
And there is good reasons why JSON has become so prevalent in the web world:

  • first JSON is really well integrated with Javascript, the Esperanto of the web (and that’s not an understatement with the rise of server-side Javascript platforms like Node.js): the stringification of a Javascript objects tree gives a JSON document (but not all the JSON document are valid Javascript objects),
  • secondly JSON is less verbose than XML (see my other article on the subject) and can be used for most scenarios where XML was historically used

So whatever the language and platform you’ll use you’ll need a strong JSON parsing component.

In the Java world there is at least two good candidates: Gson and Jackson.
In this article I’ll illustrate how to use Gson: I’ll start with a (not so) simple use case that just works, then show how you can handle less standard situations, like naming discrepancies, data represented in a format not handled natively by Gson or types preservation.

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JSON vs XML: some hard numbers about verbosity


More and more JSON is becoming the data interchange format of the web and even starts to leak outside of this world, replacing XML wherever it can, and there is really good reasons for that.
But often people are driven towards JSON for other reasons, not necessarily bad reasons, but based on more anecdotal facts, like the so-called verbosity of XML.
Indeed this is the argument you’ll hear the most often, e.g. just have a look at this nice comparison of the two formats: the first cons is of course “verbosity“.

And it’s a factual argument: the size gains can be important if your values are small, typically for representing business objects like customers because the markup overhead (all the closing tags) will become important relatively to the carried information (e.g. the names and zip codes of your customers).

But you rarely send big chunk of data in a raw text format as XML or JSON, because nowadays servers and clients (e.g. web browsers) supports live gzipping of the workloads, and use it transparently.
So the size advantage of JSON over XML should reduce because GZIP knows how to factorize redundant information like markups.

At least this seems a reasonable speculation, but while intuition is good hard numbers are better to be definitely convinced and to have a numerical idea of the impact.
So I’ve written a small Java benchmark that I’ll present, along with its results, in this article.

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C# : scope your global state changes with IDisposable and the using statement


Sometimes we need to modify some global state, but when we do that it’s critical to ensure we leave things as we’ve found them; you know like when you lift the toilet seat: forgetting to put it down afterwards could get you in trouble!
It’s similar in programming and you need to use the right tools and practices.

If you regularly work with C# it’s very likely you’ve already used the IDisposable interface along with the using statement, two tools that help you scope the use of a resource.

In this article I’ll show you how they can be used to scope global state changes in a fluent manner, a pattern I’ve used for years to enhance reusability and readability of this kind of code.
In the first part I’ll illustrate this pattern with a small and hopefully fun example, and then in the second part I’ll describe how it can be applied to other situations like culture settings and Excel development.
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“If all you have is a hammer…

…everything looks like a nail” says the proverb.

I’ll illustrate it with a little story about a common mistake I see sometimes.

(Code samples are in C# but use only basic features so C++ and Java developers should not be too disoriented.)

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Using an Access, MySQL, PostgreSQL or SQLite database from VBA


Note to pedantic guys: yes Access is not a database engine, only the graphical front-end to Jet/ACE, but we’ll stand with this simplification. :)

The sample application (Excel + VBA) and the SQL source code are available in this ZIP archive:

If you are an advanced VBA developer who builds applications that manage a non trivial amount of data odds are good you are using an Access database to store them.
If this setup perfectly fits your current needs, you completely master it, you’re not experiencing any issue and your needs won’t evolve in the near future you can skip this article and continue enjoying your system. ;)

Indeed, do you really need a new database management system (DBMS)?
Often the only argument in favor of migrating to other DBMS is they are “better”; while it’s true for some technical capabilities, it may not be regarding other “metrics” like simplicity: Access is easy to understand and manage for non IT staff and is often installed with default business workstation setup along with the rest of the Office suite.

So let’s say you have strong reasons to migrate to a new DBMS because you’ve come to the point where you feel you need support for at least one of the following features: interoperability, big storage, high concurrency (hundreds of users) and/or high performance, and Access starts to become a part of the problem.
So what can you do if you want to enhance the quality of your database without making your total cost of ownership (TCO) explode?

Your TCO is essentially made of:

  • licensing costs: limiting them is quite simple: using a free, usually open-source, database and paying only for support
  • management costs: they are by far bigger than the licensing costs and are directly impacted by the complexity of the DBMS; so you need a simple DBMS that you’ll be able to setup and manage yourself as you used to do with Access without the help of system or database administrators
  • development costs: every additional change to your current schema or VBA implementation to fit the new DBMS will have a cost; so we want things to be transparent with zero additional development, which in particular means a standard SQL-based DBMS.

While the equation may seem a little complex it has at least three solutions:

  • SQLite is the ideal candidate if you’re happy with the “single-file” model, you don’t have high concurrency constraints, and your only needs are interoperability (with Mac OS, Linux, Unix…), bigger storage and/or costs savings,
  • MySQL and PostgreSQL: if you need support for high-concurrency, really big storage (e.g. tens of GBs), advanced user-management, performance fine tuning and other advanced features you’ll have to jump out of the single-file world.
    If you don’t have specific requirements then MySQL and PostgreSQL will appear similar to you and equally do the job. However, in this kind of situation, I have a preference for MySQL, not because its inherent capabilities would be superior (as I’ve said MySQL and PostgreSQL are roughly equivalent for simple setups), but because, as the reference open-source DBMS for years, MySQL benefits from a huge community and toolbox. Moreover, while you’ll sure find the tools to work in good conditions with PostgreSQL, if you ever need to justify your choice to your hierarchy you’ll be in a better position if you choose the standard solution instead of the challenger.
    But as I’m not sectarian, and for completeness, I’ll cover both.

In this article I’ll quickly cover the setup of these three DBMS (with links to other resources for more extensive instructions) and illustrate their usage with a small VBA application, a revolutionary todo-list manager, that uses Access too.

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Using C# from native C++ with the help of C++/CLI (fixed and enhanced)

Important note

This article replaces the previous one with the same title.
Indeed the previous C++/CLI wrapper implementation had a flaw that created memory corruption.
This issue has been fixed in the following implementation.
Moreover I’ve used it as an opportunity to greatly enhance the content, especially the description of the C++/CLI wrapper implementation, design rationales being now included.

Update note

The article has been updated on the 19th of June 2016 to integrate 3 fixes:

  • the YahooAPIWrapper‘s destructor is correctly declared in the header file to avoid memory leaks,
  • the YahooAPIWrapper‘s definition/cpp file does not redefine the class and the __declspec(dllexport) metadata has been moved to the header file to avoid compilation errors,
  • the YahooAPIWrapper‘s and native C++ program’s implementations have been updated to take into account the new fields names of Yahoo API to avoid runtime exceptions.


When it comes to software development in a professional environment, heterogeneity is the rule not the exception: you often need to interact with systems developed with other technologies.

I’ve been recently faced with such a situation: a team that uses only native C++ needed to retrieve data using the object-oriented API of another team that develops only in .Net with C#.
This is a relatively uncommon scenario (just look at the number of articles on the subject), the standard case being new systems based on the .Net platform, developed in C# or VB.Net, needing to interact with legacy systems developed in native C++.

I’ve used the C++/CLI platform due to its unique ability to mix managed (.Net) and native code in one place and is then the ideal tool for building bridges between these two worlds using simple wrappers: the native face of the wrapper can be consumed by the legacy components and its managed face can directly use the C# API.

In this article I’ll illustrate how I’ve tackled the issue by building a simple C++/CLI wrapper, using a similar use-case: market-data retrieval from Yahoo.

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